Lumpen Intellectual descibes an individual in a traditional society who is literate but has won no distinction in their career. Lloyd E. Eastman offers the example of a student who has failed his civil service examination in pre-revolutionary China.
- Lloyd E. Eastman. 1988. Family, Fields, and Ancestors: Constancy and Change in China's Social and Economic History, 1550-1949. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 219.